Where is the Korean individual of our project located in the phylogenetic trees of the human race?
Recent research on human diversity using genome information showed that the human race is classified into three ethnic groups of African, Caucasian and Asian, which is the result of long segregation in the human history. In addition, it showed that the Asians who comprise around 60% of current human beings are classified into two ethnic groups, northern and southern Asians. In Figure 4 and 5, their phylogenetic trees were represented based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). SNP is one of genetic variations that are found in different individuals and is commonly used to measure their genetic distance. The SNP data for these phylogenetic trees were primarily obtained from the phase III results of the International HapMap project. Along with this SNP data, the analysis results of individual genome sequencing were also used including two Caucasians (Dr. James Watson and Dr. Craig Ventor), one Chinese (Dr. Yan Huang), and the Korean individual of our project (Dr. Sungjin Kim). As a result, we found that the Korean individual was close to Chinese and Japanese and far from African. In addition, we found that he belongs to a subgroup of northern Asian mainly residing in north China, Manchuria, Mongolia, Japan and Korea. We think that our sequencing project will contribute to the overall human genetics including the understanding of human diversity especially in northern Asia.
Fig 4. A phylogenetic tree of the human race including Caucasian, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. To construct this tree, allele sharing distances (ASD) were calculated using 40,255 SNPs and neighbor-joining (NJ) method was applied.
Fig 5. A circular phylogenetic tree of the human race including two Caucasians (Dr. James Watson and Dr. Craig Ventor), one Chinese (Dr. Yan Huang), and the Korean individual of our project (Dr. Sungjin Kim). At terminal nodes, ‘CEU', ‘CHB', ‘JPT', and ‘YRI' stand for Caucasian, Chinese, Japanese and African, respectively.
Data set (Autosomal SNP : 40,255 markers)
1.HapMap Phase III 1.6M genotype - 서양인(20명), 중국인(20명), 일본인(20명), 아프리카인(20명)의 SNP 데이터
2.Craig Ventor’s Variation
3.James Watson’s Variation
4.YanHuang(Han Chinese)’s Variation